Official name: Republic of Peru
Capital: Lima (9 million 752 thousand inhabitants)
Administrative division: 25 regions and one constitutional province.
Date: July 28, 1821
Population: 31,151.643 (INEI)
Religion: Catholic (90%), Protestant (10%).
Ethnic composition: 45% Amerindians; mestizos 37%; whites Fifteen%; Other 3%.
Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara and more than 60 dialects are spoken in the jungle.
Location: Peru is located in the western part of South America. It borders to the north with Ecuador and Colombia, to the east with Brazil and Bolivia, Chile to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean.
Land: 1, 279,999 km²
Water: 5,220 km² Coastline 2,414 km (1,500 mi)
Continental shelf: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi)
Territorial sea: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi)
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0.5%
ermanent pastures: 21%
Forests and woodland: 66%
Other: 9.5% (1993 est.)
Area comparison: slightly smaller than Alaska and five times bigger than the UK.
The lowest point: Depression of Sechura, in the region of Piura, -34 m
Highest point: Nevado Huascaran - 6768msnm
Peru is one of the 10 most mega diverse countries in the world, that has 82 of the 104 life zones. It has an incredible variety of climates and microclimates that allow the development of a large number of plants and animals and endemic species. In Peru just go a couple of hours you can cross different ecological zones and find a variety of ecosystems. Thanks to this variety you will enjoy a unique experience. Weather conditions ranging from tropical climate (30 ° C +) on the north coast and humid in the eastern jungle. Frosts in the heights of the Andes that reach (-25 ° C). The coastal territory covers 12%, the sea comprising 30% and the area of the Amazon rainforest 58% of the total area of the Peruvian territory.
The territory of Peru is divided into three major geographical regions, and by the presence of the great Andes has a variety of climates. The coastal region extends parallel along the coast, is characterized by the presence of low rainfall and average temperature ranges between 14 ° C and 18 ° C. The saw runs between the coastal regions and forest and is predominantly characterized by the presence of mountain ranges. The climate is dry and cold, the average temperature varies between 9 ° C and 17 ° C and rains predominate in the months of January and February. The forest, whose surface is the largest, covering 60% of the Peruvian territory. It includes the high forest, mountain eyebrow and the Amazon plain, the average temperature is between 26 ° C and 40 ° C.
Before the formation of the Inca state, there were several civilizations that developed within our territory, exceptionally adapting to different geographical areas and adverse conditions. One of the first was Chavin, which was developed in the Ancash region between 1200 and 200 B.C., characterized by a theocratic government and famous for its stone sculptures which represent mainly cats. Paracas was developed in the Ica region between 200 B.C. and 600 A.D., famous for theirtextiles and extensive knowledge of medicine. The Moche civilization developed in the northern part of the country, they mastered the metallurgy, a clear example are the jewels found in the tomb of the Lord of Sipan. Tiwanaku, this civilization developed in the third century A.D. in the present territories of Peru and Bolivia. They were characterized mainly by the development of agricultural terraces. The Nazca culture also occupied part of the Ica region between 300 B.C. and 900 A.D., through the use of aqueducts managed to grow in the desert, they attributed the construction of the mysterious Nazca lines. Later the Wari, Chimu and Chachapoyas civilizations demonstrated an advanced knowledge of urban design, metallurgy and buildings adapted to the environment. The Incas made their appearance in the late fourteenth century, becoming the most important in South America civilization. They covered the territories of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina. It was a theocratic government, where the Inca was proclaimed as the son of the sun god. They were organized in small communities called Ayllus, which functioned as family and territory by a head unit, plus their organization allowed them to provide free services to the state so They organized, so as they could build all buildings and roads network is today. The legacy of the Incas is immense, thanks to the knowledge of engineering today we see many agricultural terraces with a complex system of irrigation and drainage, a network of roads linking the major provinces and of course the impressive temples with a unique styled and finished stone blocks. On the other hand include its impressive knowledge in astronomy and agriculture, thanks to the latter today is possible to find a wide variety of products. After the arrival of the Spaniards in 1532, they started the state as a colony where much of the population was reduced by diseases brought from Europe. Many Indians were enslaved for over 300 years, forced to work in mines and haciendas, until the eighteenth century began the process of independence with the rebellion of Tupac Amaru II was given, however Peru would not be released until the arrival Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar in 1821 winning the last battle in 1824.
Alberto Fujimori was elected president in 1990, there was a noticeable improvement in the economy and progress in reducing terrorist activity. In 1995 he was re-elected for a second term, however, its reliance on authoritarian measures led him to an economic downturn, which was reflected in a low percentage of approval. He won a third term in the 2000 elections, amid much controversy. A transitional government oversaw new elections in 2001 by Valentin Paniagua and was subsequently elected president Alejandro Toledo, whose government was characterized by maintaining economic stability. In 2006, former President Alan Garcia is elected for the second time, his government was characterized by continuity to the economic policy of previous governments, a slight favoritism to foreign investment and marked social conflicts. Currently Ollanta Humala is the president, whose term expires in 2016. This government was also marked by follow the same economic policy of previous governments.
Peruvian cuisine is the result of the fusion of the ancient culinary tradition of Peru with culinary customs brought by slaves brought mainly during the time of the colony, mostly from the regions of Asia and Africa. Later he was influenced by those migrants who arrived fleeing from Europe from the French Revolution to the First and Second World War. On the other hand, our particular geography allows us to have a wide range of products, which is why our cuisine is one of the most varied and recognized worldwide. The "Ceviche" is the representative dish of Peruvian cuisine, made based on fish and has cooked in lime juice and served with sweet potato and corn.