Official name: Republic of Peru
Capital: Lima (9 million 752 thousand inhabitants)
Administrative division: 25 regions and one constitutional province.
Date: July 28, 1821
Population: 31,151.643 (INEI)
Religion: Catholic (90%), Protestant (10%).
Ethnic composition: 45% Amerindians; mestizos 37%; whites Fifteen%; Other 3%.
Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara and more than 60 dialects are spoken in the jungle.
Location: Peru is located in the western part of South America. It borders to the north with Ecuador and Colombia, to the east with Brazil and Bolivia, Chile to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean.
Land: 1, 279,999 km²
Water: 5,220 km² Coastline 2,414 km (1,500 mi)
Continental shelf: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi)
Territorial sea: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi)
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0.5%
Permanent pastures: 21%
Forests and woodland: 66%
Other: 9.5% (1993 est.)
Area comparison: slightly smaller than Alaska and five times bigger than the UK.
The lowest point: Depression of Sechura, in the region of Piura, -34 m
Highest point: Nevado Huascarán – 6768msnm
Peru is one of the 10 most mega diverse countries in the world, that has 82 of the 104 different life zones that exist on the planet. It has an incredible variety of climates and microclimates that allow the development of a large number of plants and animals and endemic species. In Peru traveling just a couple of hours you will pass different ecological zones and come across a variety of ecosystems. Because of this variety you are sure to enjoy a unique experience. Weather conditions range from tropical climate (30 ° C +) on the north coast to humid in the eastern jungle. Frosts in the heights of the Andes that can reach (-25 ° C). The coastal region covers 12%, comprising 30% and the area of the Amazon rainforest 58% of the total area of Peru.
The country of Peru is divided into three major geographical regions, and alongside the presence of the great Andes has a variety of climates. The coastal region extends the whole left hand side of Peru, and is characterized by the presence of low rainfall and average temperature ranges between 14 ° C and 18 ° C. The andes runs between the coastal regions and forest and is predominantly characterized by the presence of mountain ranges. The climate is dry and cold, with the average temperature varying between 9 ° C and 17 ° C and frequent rainfall in the months of January and February. The forest, whose surface is the largest, covering 60% of Peru, includes the high forest, mountain eyebrow and the Amazon plain, and the average temperature is between 26 ° C and 40 ° C.
Before the formation of the Inca state, there were several civilizations that developed within the Peruvian territory, exceptionally able to adapt to different geographical areas and adverse conditions. One of the first was Chavin, which originated in the Ancash region between 1200 and 200 B.C., characterized by a theocratic government and famous for its stone sculptures which represent mainly cats. Paracas started in the Ica region between 200 B.C. and 600 A.D., well known for their textiles and extensive knowledge of medicine. The Moche civilization came from the northern part of the country. They mastered the metallurgy, a clear example being the jewels found in the tomb of the Lord of Sipan. Tiwanaku. This civilization developed in the third century A.D. in the present territories of Peru and Bolivia. They were characterized mainly by the development of agricultural terraces. The Nazca culture also occupied part of the Ica region between 300 B.C. and 900 A.D., through the use of aqueducts that managed to grow in the desert; they executed the construction of the mysterious Nazca lines. Later the Wari, Chimu and Chachapoyas civilizations demonstrated an advanced knowledge of urban design, metallurgy and buildings adapted to the environment. The Incas made their appearance in the late fourteenth century, becoming the most important in South America civilization. They covered the territories of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina. It was a theocratic government, where the Inca was proclaimed as the son of the sun god. They were organized in small communities called Ayllus, which functioned as a family by a head unit, plus their organization allowed them to provide free services to the state. They were so organized that they were able to build buildings and roads as well or even better than we do today. The legacy of the Incas is immense, and due to the knowledge of engineering today we can observe the many agricultural terraces with a complex system of irrigation and drainage, a network of roads linking the major provinces and of course the impressive temples with a unique styled and finished stone blocks that were all built by the Incas. They also held an impressive knowledge of astronomy and agriculture, and thanks to the latter today we are able to find a wide selection of produce here in Peru. After the arrival of the Spaniards in 1532, they changed the state to a colony where much of the population was reduced by diseases brought from Europe. Many Indians were enslaved for over 300 years, forced to work in mines and estates, until the eighteenth century when the process of independence began with the rebellion of Tupac Amaru II, however Peru would not be released until the arrival Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar in 1821 winning the last battle in 1824.
Alberto Fujimori was elected president in 1990, after which there was a noticeable improvement in the economy and progress in reducing terrorist activity. In 1995 he was re-elected for a second term, however, its reliance on authoritarian measures led him to an economic downturn, which was reflected in a low percentage of approval. He won a third term in the 2000 elections, against much controversy. A transitional government oversaw new elections in 2001 by Valentin Paniagua and the president Alejandro Toledo was elected, whose government was characterized by maintaining economic stability. In 2006, former President Alan Garcia is elected for the second time. His government was characterized by continuity to the economic policy of previous governments, a slight favoritism to foreign investment and marked social conflicts. Currently Martin Vizcarra is the president, whose term expires in 2021. This government is also marked by following the same economic policy of previous governments.
Peruvian cuisine is the result of the fusion of the ancient culinary traditions of Peru with culinary customs brought in by slaves mainly during the time of the colony, mostly from the regions of Asia and Africa. Later it was influenced by those migrants who arrived fleeing from Europe from the French Revolution and the First and Second World War. This all added to the fact that our particular geography allows us to have a wide range of products, which is why our cuisine is one of the most varied and recognized worldwide. Ceviche is the representative dish of Peruvian cuisine, made with white fish that is cooked in lime juice and served with sweet potato and corn.